Cellular Network Plaaning

 Cellular Network Plaaning Composition

Cellular Network Planning

and Optimization

Component II: Fading

Jyri Hämäläinen,

Communications and Networking Department,

TKK, 17. 1 . 3 years ago

Outline

Building approaches

Path loss types

Shadow fading

Fast fading

2

Building approaches

several

Fading viewed by shifting terminal

Fast fading

Electrical power

Modeling procedure:

+20 deutsche bahn

1 . Distance between

TX and RX =>

course loss

installment payments on your Shadowing simply by

large obstructions =>

shadow fading

several. Multi-path effects

=> fast fading - 20 deutsche bahn

Path loss

Lognormal

diminishing

Path loss

Time

5

Path Reduction

Path loss is range dependent mean

attenuation in the signal.

Once the allowed way loss of a specific system

is well known we can fix the maximum length

between transmitter and device and figure out

the comparable coverage place.

Suitable way loss style depends on the

surroundings (macro-cell, micro-cell, indoor)

Outdoor to outdoor models

Outdoor to interior models

In house models

5

Shadow Falling

Shadow falling is used to model variations in

path loss due to large obstacles like buildings,

terrain circumstances, trees.

Darkness fading is likewise called as log-normal

fading since it is definitely modeled applying log-normal

circulation

In cell dimensioning/link budget shadow falling

is taken into consideration through a particular margin

(=shadow fading margin)

6

Route loss & shadow fading

Signal strength in dB's

Log-normal syndication

Path loss

Standard change e. g. +/-8 dB

Distance among TX and RX in logarithmic size

7

Quickly Fading

Quickly fading is likewise called because multi-path diminishing since it is primarily caused by multi-path reflections of any transmitted surf by community scatterers just like human build structures or perhaps natural road blocks Fast fading occurs as MS and scatterers close by MS happen to be moving Transmission strength inside the receiver may possibly change even tens of decibels within a extremely short time shape

Signal coherence distance = separation between locations exactly where fast diminishing correlation is negligible. Transmission coherence range is half the carrier wavelength

f = 2GHz => coherence length = c/(2*f) =7. five cm

Coherence time = time in which in turn MS moves coherence distance Coherence period depends on MS speed.

In cell dimensioning/link budget quickly fading is definitely taken into account by using a certain margin (=fast diminishing margin)

almost 8

Fast Fading

Scatterers

a1 (t )e jφ1 ( t )

Especially the changes in

component sign phases

create rapid different versions in

amount signal

a2 (t & t0 )e jφ1 ( t +t0 )

Quantity signal for time t

Sum signal at period t+t0

S i9000 (t ) = a1 (t )e jφ1 (t ) &... + a5 (t )e jφ5 ( t )

S (t + t0 ) sama dengan a1 (t + t0 )e jφ1 ( big t +t0 ) +... & a5 (t + t0 )e jφ5 ( t +t0 ) 9

Way loss versions

10

Content

We call to mind first two important route loss designs for macro- and micro-cell environments

My spouse and i Model: Traditional Okumura-Hata

Okumura-Hata is based on only few variables but it is effective and is traditionally used to anticipate path loss in macro-cell environments

2 Model: PRICE 231 or Walfisch – Ikegami

It is suitable for both macro- and micro-cell environments and it is method general than Okumura-Hata. Walfisch – Ikegami models distribution phenomena better but in cost of increased difficulty.

Then we all consider path loss in urban environment when equally transmitter and receiver are below the rooftop (Berg model)

Outdoor to outdoor model

Path loss of RS – MS sign in street canyon II Model: BRT – BRT, NLOS (Berg model)

Finally, we talk about shortly upon outdoor-to-indoor modeling

Terminology

ART= Above Roof top Top

BRT = Under Roof Leading

LOS sama dengan Line-of-Sight

NLOS = Non Line-of-Sight

11

General course loss model/outdoor

Outdoor way loss models are usually succumbed the form

L= A+ twelve ⋅ n ⋅ record 10 ( R )

(*)

(in decibels)

Below

R is the distance among TX and RX

A and n are constants. Values of such constant are

depending on the various parameters just like carrier

regularity, antenna height etc

Some other form to get formula (*)

~n

~

L /...

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