Cellular Network Plaaning

 Cellular Network Plaaning Composition

Cellular Network Planning

and Optimization

Component II: Fading

Jyri Hämäläinen,

Communications and Networking Department,

TKK, 17. 1 . 3 years ago


Building approaches

Path loss types

Shadow fading

Fast fading


Building approaches


Fading viewed by shifting terminal

Fast fading

Electrical power

Modeling procedure:

+20 deutsche bahn

1 . Distance between

TX and RX =>

course loss

installment payments on your Shadowing simply by

large obstructions =>

shadow fading

several. Multi-path effects

=> fast fading - 20 deutsche bahn

Path loss



Path loss



Path Reduction

Path loss is range dependent mean

attenuation in the signal.

Once the allowed way loss of a specific system

is well known we can fix the maximum length

between transmitter and device and figure out

the comparable coverage place.

Suitable way loss style depends on the

surroundings (macro-cell, micro-cell, indoor)

Outdoor to outdoor models

Outdoor to interior models

In house models


Shadow Falling

Shadow falling is used to model variations in

path loss due to large obstacles like buildings,

terrain circumstances, trees.

Darkness fading is likewise called as log-normal

fading since it is definitely modeled applying log-normal


In cell dimensioning/link budget shadow falling

is taken into consideration through a particular margin

(=shadow fading margin)


Route loss & shadow fading

Signal strength in dB's

Log-normal syndication

Path loss

Standard change e. g. +/-8 dB

Distance among TX and RX in logarithmic size


Quickly Fading

Quickly fading is likewise called because multi-path diminishing since it is primarily caused by multi-path reflections of any transmitted surf by community scatterers just like human build structures or perhaps natural road blocks Fast fading occurs as MS and scatterers close by MS happen to be moving Transmission strength inside the receiver may possibly change even tens of decibels within a extremely short time shape

Signal coherence distance = separation between locations exactly where fast diminishing correlation is negligible. Transmission coherence range is half the carrier wavelength

f = 2GHz => coherence length = c/(2*f) =7. five cm

Coherence time = time in which in turn MS moves coherence distance Coherence period depends on MS speed.

In cell dimensioning/link budget quickly fading is definitely taken into account by using a certain margin (=fast diminishing margin)

almost 8

Fast Fading


a1 (t )e jφ1 ( t )

Especially the changes in

component sign phases

create rapid different versions in

amount signal

a2 (t & t0 )e jφ1 ( t +t0 )

Quantity signal for time t

Sum signal at period t+t0

S i9000 (t ) = a1 (t )e jφ1 (t ) &... + a5 (t )e jφ5 ( t )

S (t + t0 ) sama dengan a1 (t + t0 )e jφ1 ( big t +t0 ) +... & a5 (t + t0 )e jφ5 ( t +t0 ) 9

Way loss versions



We call to mind first two important route loss designs for macro- and micro-cell environments

My spouse and i Model: Traditional Okumura-Hata

Okumura-Hata is based on only few variables but it is effective and is traditionally used to anticipate path loss in macro-cell environments

2 Model: PRICE 231 or Walfisch – Ikegami

It is suitable for both macro- and micro-cell environments and it is method general than Okumura-Hata. Walfisch – Ikegami models distribution phenomena better but in cost of increased difficulty.

Then we all consider path loss in urban environment when equally transmitter and receiver are below the rooftop (Berg model)

Outdoor to outdoor model

Path loss of RS – MS sign in street canyon II Model: BRT – BRT, NLOS (Berg model)

Finally, we talk about shortly upon outdoor-to-indoor modeling


ART= Above Roof top Top

BRT = Under Roof Leading

LOS sama dengan Line-of-Sight

NLOS = Non Line-of-Sight


General course loss model/outdoor

Outdoor way loss models are usually succumbed the form

L= A+ twelve ⋅ n ⋅ record 10 ( R )


(in decibels)


R is the distance among TX and RX

A and n are constants. Values of such constant are

depending on the various parameters just like carrier

regularity, antenna height etc

Some other form to get formula (*)



L /...



 Modelling Project research Composition 26.08.2019

Modelling Project research Composition

п»їYour report should include a suggestion for the most budget-friendly system settings. This should include the number of shoe lines, the number of operators by simply type and shift…...

Read →
 His 116  Detrimental War Analysis Paper 08.08.2019

His 116 Detrimental War Analysis Paper

426 08.08.2019

His 121

Detrimental War HIS/115 July twenty-four, 2011 City War 1787 – Northwest Ordinance * Included provisions that outlawed slavery throughout the territory by congress * Created sociable…...

Read →
 Essay on Drypers Organization 08.08.2019

Essay on Drypers Organization

365 08.08.2019

Drypers Corporation

Drypers Corporation National Television Marketing campaign 1 . Problem definition What are the inquiries to be made a decision? Drypers Businesses senior management were talking about…...

Read →
 Marketing Plan Essay 08.08.2019

Marketing Plan Essay

839 08.08.2019

Promoting Plan

BUSINESS SUMMARY Gjof Pearl Shake is a growing pearl shake business operating out of the Quezon Province. We all maintain this image by providing our customers quality product or…...

Read →
 He Insider secrets Of Udolpho By Ann Research Paper 08.08.2019

He Insider secrets Of Udolpho By Ann Research Paper

п»їhe Mysteries of Udolpho by Ann Radcliffe is a Gothic romance that presents great phenomenon which is later explained by natural causes. In the book, Emily St Albert…...

Read →
 Educational Psychology: a Tool intended for Effective Teaching Essay 08.08.2019

Educational Psychology: a Tool intended for Effective Teaching Essay

902 08.08.2019

Educational Psychology: a

Summary Santrock Section 1" Educational Psychology: A device for Powerful Teaching” Mindset is the study of habit and mental process. Educational Psychology may be the branch of mindset…...

Read →